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HURRICANES  The clouds are dark and moving in fast, it’s starting to rain hard then it turns into sideways rain drenching the yard. The wind picks up and blows hard striking trees in its path. The windows are taped or boarded, the gas tanks full, a wallet full of money, cabinets stocked with food and… Read more Hurricanes

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All About Math!

Malaysian Chinese abacus
An abacus is an ancient counting tool.

Creative Commons License Thomas Quine via Compfight

Did you know that people have been using mathematics for over 4,500 years? Mathematics is a subject at our schools online and in the outside world. Mathematics was made from a board and a stick, because that is all they had back in 300 to 600 BC. Mathematics was made to help people with everyday things and to make us smarter. So, with that being said I am here to tell you everything you need to know about math.

Mathematics started from 600 to 300 BC (before Christ). The Ancient Greek people invented it by using a system of Mathematics that they used from their own Mathematics. This so they could grow a larger amount of people to use to do everyday things. Like counting money or whatever currency you have. Maybe to count animals, but most importantly what were we going to count the with? Roman Numerals! they were lines and letters. I=1, V=5, X=10, L=50, C=100, D=500, and finally, M=1,000.

 

From 4,500 years ago we still have a tool that Romans used. This tool is called an abacus, it was used to count everyday things. The abacus is also called a counting frame, it is a collector’s item it would be worth definitely over $1 million, obviously because it was made 4,500 years ago.

The Ancient Egyptians from about 3,000 BC used algebra, arithmetic, and geometry to find the approximate the area of a circle. There was a number system that Hindu-Arabic started developing in the 1st century and then came to be in the 9th century. A welsh mathematician named Robert Recorde invented the equal sign (=). The symbols + and – addition and subtraction have been around for thousands of years but it wasn’t until the 16th century that most mathematical symbols were invented.

I hope I have informed you all you need to know about math it really informed me. Well, that is Brandon signing off for now. Thank you for listening to my informational text on Mathematics. Here are some helpful Links:

http://www.kidsmathgamesonline.com/facts/history.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_mathematics

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Some carnivorous plants are like mazes that lead to a dead end. Some are like ticking time bombs. Others, just swallow creatures whole. When I first started researching about carnivorous plants, I thought I already knew a lot about them. It turns out that while I am learning about these plants, I can’t stop thinking about them because there is a lot more to be discovered. Imagine a fascinating, beautiful plant living in a boggy swamp and getting its nutrients not only from soil, but mostly… from meat! Dun, dun, dun!

There are 630 different kinds of carnivorous plants around the world. Some carnivorous plants are aquatic and others live in the soil like most other plants do. They live in poor, wet soil that doesn’t have a lot of nutrients. Because the soil doesn’t give them the nutrients they need, they’ve adapted by eating bugs or small animals. Carnivorous plants are divided in five types, according to how they can catch their prey (food): Pitfall Trap, Flypaper Trap, Snap Trap, Bladder Trap and Lobster Trap.

This carnivorous plant is called Monkey Cup because monkeys drink the water in it.

The Pitfall Trap plants have slippery leaves that are shaped like a funnel and slant down toward their bottom. When bugs land on the leaves of these plants, they slide down the leaf into a “pool” of digestive enzymes found in the bottom of the leaf. Monkey Cup and some bromeliads are examples of Pitcher plants and some are so large that they can catch and consume rats or frogs.

Pitcher Plants have a mechanism that they can turn on and off throughout the day. Part of the day, the Pitcher Plant’s edges are dry so when a scout ant comes and smells the nectar, it goes back to its colony and brings some of its friends. But by that time, the plant is wet and the ants fall into it. The Pitcher Plant gets an ant feast! If the Pitcher Plant was wet all the time, the one scout ant would slide down and not go back to the colony to bring the other ants, which means that it wouldn’t bring back all the food. Insects cannot escape Pitcher Plants, with their pitfall hunting mechanism.

The Sundew plant uses a sticky substance to hunt. It is a “flypaper trap” plant.

When bugs land on a Flypaper Trap carnivorous plant, the sticky substance that appears to be dew when it sparkles on the sun keeps bugs from being able to get away. When the bug struggles to escape, it gets even more stuck and the enzymes on the plant’s leaf digest it faster. Flypaper Trap plants are impossible to escape. Sundew and Butterwort are a couple of carnivorous plants in this category. 

Carnivorous plants with Snap Traps catch their food by trapping bugs or small animals inside their leaves so they cannot escape. All of you might have heard of the Venus Flytrap, but did you know that if the prey touches one of the hairs on the leaf it will set a timer? If it touches another hair within 20 seconds, then the plant will shut; otherwise, the prey will be safe. You can probably make a Venus Flytrap close its jaws with a stick, but it has to feel the prey struggling to start its digestive process. If the object isn’t food, the trap will reopen in about 12 hours and “spit” it out. The Venus Flytrap can only close its mouth six times in its lifetime.

A Venus Flytrap catches a lizard.

After capturing an insect or animal, The Venus Flytrap shuts in less than a second. “All of this takes about 1/2 second,” says Julia Cooke, a plant ecologist from the Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment at the University of Western Sydney, in Australia. But other carnivorous plants can move even faster: “The related Waterwheel Plant uses snap-traps, but underwater. This plant closes its traps in 20 milliseconds, making it one of the fastest movements recorded in plants.”

The Bladderwort is a type of aquatic carnivorous plant.

Carnivorous plants with Bladder Traps, like the Bladderworts and the Pinguicula, live in the water. They suck bugs and other small animals out of the water (like a vacuum cleaner)and into the bladder so they can be digested. There is no escape. 

The Cobra Lily uses the “lobster trap” mechanism to catch prey.

Carnivorous plants with Lobster Traps use tiny hairs which are all going the same direction to force bugs to walk toward the bottom of the plant’s leaves. The Cobra Lily and the Corkscrew are types of Lobster Trap plants. There are mazes inside them that are easy to enter but hard to leave that they use to catch prey. When the bugs hit a “dead end” with a pool full of digestive enzymes, they can’t escape.

I never knew that carnivorous plants were so interesting and that they were divided in five categories based on how they eat bugs and animals. They are beautiful but dangerous, inviting but deadly. Not to humans though, so don’t be scared if you see one in action. I hope you do.

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