The Lost Colony of Roanoke

The Roanoke colony disappeared.

You may not know about the lost colony on the island of Roanoke and that’s why I made this blog post. I hope you enjoy it! First off in August of the year 1587 the English make a permanent settlement with 90 men, 20 women, and 10 kids on the island. It was along the North Carolina coast, on Roanoke island, is where this mystery happened.

The colonist were living near the Seatan Indians and the indians have had a mean encounter with whites in early years and killed one man from the colony. John White was the leader of the colonist. They were running low on supplies and struggling to survive. The English were in the middle of a war and couldn’t send supplies to the colony so the colonist told John to go. In 1588 John sailed to England but ran into trouble and couldn’t return to the colony right away. After 3 years he sailed back to the island and finds the settlement gone! He only finds one clue– the word “Croatoan” carved into a post.

All that was found was the word “Croatoan”. The colonists had disappeared.

The disappearance helped the next group of settlers make their colony in the same area 17 years later. People have found some evidence for some theories about what happened with the colony:

  1. Hostile Spanish may came from the south and captured them
  2. They may have turned native, as there was a tribe close by just inland.
  3. They may have made a boat and tried to sail but sunk.

What do you think happened to the colony? Here’s a video with more information on Roanoke.

 

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Origins of Roller Coasters

The first rollercoasters originated with Russian sleds.

Did you know that modern roller coasters originated from Russian ice slides? These slides were constructed in the 18th century they featured sleds or wheeled carts being sent down a series of hills and loops made of snow reinforced by wood posts.the originally slides were very dangerous because riders would be pushed down a 70-foot drop at a 50 degree angle with only a measly string holding them from falling.

Later as technology evolved the slides featured a track similar to that of a railroad, with primarily wheeled carts the early modern roller coaster was born in this ara such as les Montagnes and mauch chunk these coasters were much safer.In the 20 century coasters changed to being made of steel allowing for greater acceleration and for the ability to invert riders. Today roller coasters are are enjoyed across the globe!

A very tall modern rollercoaster.

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Nazca Lines

There are weird lines and decorations called Nazca Lines that scientist are trying to find out who did it. Read this article to learn about them.

This is one of the most popular Nazca line drawings.

About the lines

Did you know that the Nazca lines are actually 2-6 in. deep but 2-7 miles in length! Also they were created in Peru over 2,000 years ago in the 200 BC. They can be seen only by flying over them.They were carved and are 200 miles away from south Lima. They were also found in the 1940s.  

sacrifices!

There are also more decorations of the people of Nazca. They would have sacrifice ceremonies!!!  scientist don’t know how they killed them but we know what they did with them.

After they kept their skulls and removed their intestines and sewed their lips with cactus spines. Also they drilled through their skulls and put a rope through their hole in their skull and hung them.But do you still wonder what happened with their body? Well they keep them for status but they replace their head with a jar and call all of their skulls battle trophies. They still don’t know that the skulls are from the same people that they know.

One last fact is that scientist think that the lines were drawn randomly creating pictures and then the carvings carried a water supply.

Hope you liked my article about the Nazca lines and other decorations.

Here is a video to learn more.
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Bermuda triangle

The Bermuda triangle is a very mysterious place because planes, ships, and things just disappear. The Bermuda triangle is also known as Devil’s Triangle or Hurricane Alley. The Bermuda Triangle is located in the western part of the North Atlantic. Many ships and aircrafts have disappeared in the Bermuda Triangle. The three corners of the triangle are Florida, Bermuda, and Puerto Rico. In reality the Bermuda Triangle is not really a triangle.

Flight 19 was lost in the Bermuda Triangle in 1949. The Bermuda Triangle devoured a DC-3 carrying 27 people.  A C-124 globemaster carrying 53 people in 1951 was also lost. Bermuda Triangle does not exist according to the Navy. Some people think the reasons ships and aircrafts have disappeared is because of an electric fog. Others things seaweed in the Sargasso sinks the ships. In conclusion the Bermuda Triangle is a very mysterious place.

The Bermuda Triangle is an imaginary triangle between Florida, Bermuda, and Puerto Rico.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The Ancient City of Pompeii

 

The ancient city of Pompeii in Italy.

Pompeii is an ancient Roman city that was buried under meters of ash from a volcano called Vesuvius.  Pompeii is no longer a place where you can live because it’s too fragile. Pompeii is located in Pompeii, in the Province of Naples Campania, Italy.

Mount Vesuvius, a volcano near the bay just erupted on October 24, 79 AD. More than 2,000 people died of the heat, ash, and fumes.

Artifacts from the ancient city including a person who was buried by ash.

The shape of Pompeii’s victims were captured. The eruption was so bad it lasted 24 hours after the eruption the ancient roman city of Pompeii was lost for centuries. Pompeii was rediscovered by Demenico Fontana. He was digging a channel underground when he discovered the city.

Today a third of the city is still buried. People cannot live in Pompeii because it is way too fragile, but today still lies Pompeii, Province of Naples Campiana, Italy.        

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Stonehenge and Other Mysterious Places

Stonehenge in England.

What is Stonehenge 

Stonehenge is an unusual place that looks like a circle of rocks. Stonehenge is in Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge is a monument for the dead. No one knows who put the stones there. One Theory is that Merlin, the god of Arthurian magically put the stones there. Some think it is the ruins of a temple.

When Stonehenge Began

Stonehenge began 5,000 years ago. The first circle was built in 3,000 B.C,  made of timber. That is 3,000 years before Christ was born.

Why Stonehenge is so special 

Stonehenge is so special because it is a monument for the dead and it is so unusual because there are massive stones about 30 feet tall. Stonehenge is a prehistoric circle of rocks. Some people might think, “its just a circle of rocks how can it be so special”, well there’s a lot of reasons why it is so special. It has even been given the nickname “slaughter stone”. I think it is named slaughter stone because there has been many sacrifices.

Other Mysterious Places 

Now that i have told you a little about Stonehenge. I’m gonna tell you about some other mysterious places. First, the Bermuda Triangle is a deep triangle in the water, many ships have disappeared there. It covers all of the Caribbean islands. Its mysterious because many ships have disappeared without a trace.

Nazca lines was carved about 2,000 years ago, the lines form huge pictures, its located in Peru. The lines are about 1,200 feet long. They are lines that make animals and plants. They are carved on a a desert floor.

Yonaguni Monument are odd step stones that were discovered in 1986 in an ocean near Japan. It is underwater.

Last but not least, Chichen Itza, deep within the Mexican jungles is a mysterious temple or pyramid. it was built in 600 B.C.

 

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The Miwok Tribes Arts & Crafts

Miwok Indian basket

Miwok baskets were beautiful and functional.

Imagine you are a Miwok women, sitting in a hut made of straw with a half woven basket.  The basket you are making is big and deep. It will be great for gathering . You have some grass next to you that you pick up and start weaving into the basket.  You weave and weave until your hands hurt. You have finished the basket. You start to decorate the basket with the shell beads you made yesterday. When you finish, it looks beautiful.

Crafts

The Miwok Indians made many different crafts and beautiful things.  The Miwok would make many different kinds of baskets using the natural resources like grass. The Miwok made beautiful designs on the baskets like zig zags and butterflies. They also made shell beads that they would use as money, also jewelry, and to decorate baskets.The Miwok also made paint.  The Miwok would use chalk to make white, and charcoal to make black.

The Miwok were skilled basket makers.   The Miwok made a type of basket that wasn’t like a basket but it was a basket.  It had sticks tied together at the bottom so they would form a v shape.

At the top there was a big stick in the shape of  an o. This was tied to the top of the other sticks.  This basket was called a seed beater basket, and it was used to harvest seeds.

They even made a basket that went on their back.  There was a strap that went around their head and onto the basket.  The basket was a big deep one that could hold many things like a baby.

The crafts the Miwok made weren’t just to look pretty, they helped them with their everyday lives.  The baskets held the stuff they gathered. But some stuff was made to be pretty. Like with the shell beads,  they were used as jewelry and to decorate basket.

Using The Resources

The Miwok made very nice crafts considering they didn’t have a Michael’s store down the street.  They had to go out, and find the natural resources they were going to use. I know it would be hard to weave a basket from scratch, or make paint from chalk or charcoal.  Maybe even make a shell bead. Imagine trying to weave a basket. Imagine how much effort it would take to drill a hole through a shell just to make a single bead! These were the things the women of the Miwok tribe had to do in their everyday life. If  you like basket weaving, making shell beads, or making paint, than you might like to be a Miwok Indian.

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The Royal Family of Norway (And Its Monarchy)

Have you ever wanted to know how to live royalty? Well here is the place to be, I  will be telling you about the monarchy and the royal family of Norway! I will be talking about why it is a monarchy, the history of Norway, the names of family and what they do. So hopefully you will enjoy!

What is a monarchy?

A monarchy is different from a republic because in a monarchy the state head is born to the position, and in a republic the state head is elected by the people. The monarchy of Norway is a constitutional monarchy. This means that the royalties do not have any real power. In Norway the king has only used his right to veto only once in modern times. That happened in 1940 when Norway was invaded by the Germans. The entire royal family had to flee the country for five years, in fact today’s King of Norway lived in the U.S. during this time.

Norway’s Monarchy

Norway has been a monarchy since 872. In 872 was the battle of Hafrsfjord and Harald Fairhair won and is considered Norway’s first king. At the time the Norwegians were known as the Vikings. One fun fact is that the Vikings took over several British Isles, parts of Ireland. They also traveled and settled in Iceland, Greenland and in the USA, way before Columbus. Between 1397 and 1814 Norway was under the Danish king, and between 1814 and 1905 Norway was under the Swedish king. In 1905 Norway gained Independence from Sweden. Norway elected king Haakon who was Prince of Denmark as their new king and that is the family that is still the Norwegian Royal Family.

Today’s Royal Family

There are four main people in the royal family King Harald, Queen Sonja, Crown Prince Haakon, and Crown Princess Mette-Marit. That means when King Harald dies, Crown Prince Haakon and Crown Princess Mette-Marit will inherit the throne and become King and Queen. Crown Prince Haakon and Crown Princess Mette-Marit have two kids, Their two kids are Princess Ingrid Alexandra (14) and Sverre Magnus (12). One day Princess Ingrid Alexandra will take over as Norway’s head of the nation and become the queen because she was first born.

The Family’s Royal Life

The King, Queen, and the Crown Prince and Crown Princess travel all over the world to represent Norway. They are also heads and protectors of a lot of charities. The King and Crown Prince also meet with the current state cabinet every Friday. Princess Ingrid Alexandra and Sverre Magnus goes to school like the rest of us.

Now you know more about Norway’s royal family, the history of it, and monarchy in general. This is how their life goes along in Norway for the family. You learned how the states of Denmark and Sweden took over for almost 500 years, you also learned about the current Royal family, and what they do. Thank you so much for reading my report!

 

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Anne Frank’s Sad Story

Anne Frank was a Jewish girl who tried to hide from the Germans. Imagine you lived in an old office building and couldn’t get a lot of food, that’s what Anne’s life was like. It was cramped with other Jewish people who were also in hiding. I chose this topic because I wanted to learn what it felt like to hide in an old office building which the families called the “Secret Annexe”. Anne Frank died in a concentration camp, but what was her life like .  Image result for anne frank                                                                                                                                                           

Anne was born on June in Frankfurt, Germany. She had her mother Edith Frank, her father Otto Frank and her older sister, Margot. Anne was a Jewish and Jewish weren’t aloud to own certain things or go certain places. On June 14th, 1942 Anne celebrated her birthday with a party. She was happy to receive so many presents. One of the presents was a diary. Anne named her diary “Kitty”.

The Secret Annex            Image result for the secret annexe pictures

A few days later the Franks got a call and the Germans wanted to take Margot to a concentration camp. The family did not want to separate so they went to an old office building which they called the “Secret Annexe”. The Van Daans also went into hiding in the “Secret Annexe”. Life in the Secret Annexe was pretty scary. There were burglars and gun shootings, also food ran low. On August 4th, 1944 Anne Frank was captured and sent to a concentration camp along with her family. Anne, her mother and her sister died in the concentration camp because of hunger and torture. Otto Frank had survived and saved Kitty [Anne’s diary] and showed it to publishers. They were amazed at the story of a young girl.

I learned it was scary to be Jewish during the 1940’s because the Germans invaded homes and stole belongings from Jewish families. Many people admire Anne Frank for her strength and her strong will to survive. War is horrible. Many people died during war and we need to prevent it from happening. Little girls shouldn’t have to hide in old office buildings from people who want to capture you. They should be happy and free.

Photo Credits:

ANNE FRANK pictures: http://ourauckland.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/media/16160/custom-custom_size___afs_a_afrank_iii_030-upsized-72ppi_scxpq5fj.jpg?center=0.4336283185840708,0.57333333333333336&mode=crop&width=960&height=730&rnd=131577333920000000

Secret Annexe   picture:http://www.annefrank.org/ImageVault/Images/id_1211/height_357/width_580/aspectRatio_1.6246/conversionFormatType_Jpeg/compressionQuality_80/scope_0/ImageVaultHandler.aspx

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Surprise Attack On Pearl Harbor!

USS Nevada attempts escape from Pearl 80G32558.jpg

The bombing of Pearl Harbor

Public Domain, Link

Everyone has heard of the attack on Pearl Harbor during World War 2, but how much do you really know?  2390 Americans were killed and 1178 were wounded. Although it seems very different, Pearl Harbor was very much the same as the attack on The World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001.  Imagine standing on the deck of your battleship and seeing the first wave of a total of 353 enemy planes headed straight for you! Did you know that during the attack, American sailors and pilots shot down 29 Japanese planes?  This article will focus on the tragic loss of life and devastation inflicted by the Japanese military during their surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941.

The Japanese Attack Plan

The Japanese planned their attack in waves.  The first wave had a total of 183 planes and 5 midget submarines.  A midget sub holds two people and is used to cut through underwater cables protecting the ships in the harbor.  The second attack wave had 170 planes, including torpedo planes, fighter planes, and bombers. A total of 353 planes were transported across the Pacific on six aircraft carriers.   24 battleships escorted the fleet.

Moving Base, Unprepared For Attack, Entering World War 2

The American Pacific fleet was moved from San Diego to Honolulu, Hawaii, to create a Pacific force that could possibly defend against the advancement of Japanese forces, which had already secured the Philippines.  America created an oil embargo on the Pacific rim, cutting off oil supports to Japan. Army General Hideki Tojo took over as Prime Minister for Japan and told Japan to “ Get ready for war.”

The Tragic losses

On the morning of December 7, 1941, twenty-one American ships were hit with bombs and torpedoes, including all eight of the great battleships.  Not all of the ships were destroyed, but many were badly damaged. Other ships such as the USS Arizona, Pennsylvania, Cassin, Shaw, and Downes were also destroyed.  2390 American sailors and 1178 were wounded, for a total of 3568 casualties.

Conclusion

The attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 is forever remembered as the most brutal and devastating attack on American soil up until that point in history.  It served as the American entry point into World War 2. Although many, many thousands more soldiers and sailors sacrificed their lives over the next four years, we will always remember this day over all others.

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Anne Frank: Life in the Secret Annex

The year is 1942, you are settling down ready to write in your journal when you hear people nearby, you become frightened thinking they have discovered you. You get enough courage to peek through the blinds. Outside a kid has come home from school to find their family taken away, another person comes home from shopping to find their family was taken too. But worst of all, some Germans were taking away families giving them little time to pack.  All of this was happening because they were Jews. Anne Frank was a Jew too, she hid away from the Germans in a secret building called the Secret Annex. She hid for 2 years before she was found and later killed. Even though she was just a girl her story of bravery was fascinating.

Happy times

On June 12th, 1929 Anneliese Marie Frank was born in Frankfurt Germany, she had an older sister Margot Frank. Her parents Edith and Otto Frank were Jewish. In 1933 Edith moved with Anne and her sister to her mother’s home, while their dad, Otto Frank moved to Amsterdam. Edith, Anne, and Margot later followed him. During that time Adolf Hitler was growing control of Germany and invading other countries. Otto worried that Hitler would gain control of Amsterdam and tried to go to the U.S with his family but they couldn’t.

Dangerous Years

In 1919 Adolf Hitler came to power, the problem was that he hated Jews. Even if your grandparents or aunt was a Jew and you weren’t, you would still be considered a Jew. There were special rules for Jews, stuff like no going to the beach. You can only go to a Jewish school. If you were caught disobeying then you would be shot. Later he immediately sent any Jews he could find to a concentration camp where they would be murdered and be killed. It was a gruesome time. The Franks were in trouble, non-Jewish people hunted down Jews for money, the Franks could trust no one! Some people tried to escape but that didn’t work they were surrounded. In the end, many Jews would have to hide from the Germans but even that was dangerous because they could be found. This was also dangerous for non-Jewish people, if they  were caught helping a Jew then they would be killed or sent to a camp.

The Secret Annex         

The Franks went into hiding in the secret annex. The secret annex was in the building where Otto Frank [her dad] worked, the entrance was hidden behind a movable bookshelf. It was very spacious compared to the hiding spots other Jews lived in. It had four floors with seven people living there, the Franks had one floor to themselves. At first, Anne shared a room with Margot, but then when came he moved into Anne’s room and Margot moved into her parents. The seven people living in the secret annex include Mr. and Mrs. van Pels, Peter van Pels, Fritz Pfeffer, and the Frank family.

Discovered!                    

On August 4th, 1944 the police discovered them, it had been more than two years since the Franks had first arrived. Everyone was caught by surprise, they were all arrested along with two helpers. Anne was sent to the Westerbork concentration camp along with her sister Margot and her mother, they were later moved to Auschwitz. In the end, Germany surrendered and the people in the concentration camps were freed, but it was too late for Anne, her mother Edith, Margot, Mr. and Mrs.van Pels, Peter van Pels, and Fritz Pfeffer they all had died.  Anne’s dad Otto Frank was the only one who survived, everyone else who lived in the secret annex died. No one knows if the people in the secret annex were betrayed or not and if they were no one knows who did it.

Conclusion

Anne’s story is just one example of hiding, there are billions of other stories of these scary times. The concentration camps were a horrible thing, it ruined wonderful people’s life like Anne’s. But like she said, “ What is done cannot be undone, but one can prevent it from happening again.” We can keep all those people in our heart, and in our mind, we can remember to prevent those stuff from happening again. Her diary was published in an amazing book titled Anne Frank diary of a young girl, you can even go see the secret annex where she hid in Amsterdam. Her life was short but every second of it was important.

Diary of Anne Frank 28 sep 1942.jpg

Anne Frank original diary written in during World War two.

By Anne Frank – https://www.ushmm.org/exhibition/anne-frank/htmlsite/artifact_1_0.html, Public Domain, Link

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Jose Mujica and His Legacy

Jose Mujica, President of Uruguay

Did you know that Jose Mujica president of Uruguay was nicknamed the poorest president in the world? He was nicknamed that because he believes that you don’t need a lot to be happy, that is why he drives a 1938 blue beetle car. Mujica says, “I am not the poorest president, the poorest are the one who needs a lot to live”. Jose donates 90% of his 12,000 dollars a month salary to charity and instead of buying a presidential private plane he bought a rescue helicopter to help people that need it. Those are some of the ways Jose Mujica was a good president

Before Mujica was president he was in prison for ten years and in that time he basically lived in a hole. The prison was like that because the country was very poor and very tiny. In that prison it was so boring and lonely, all he did was play with the ants. He says when he picked up an ant and put it to his ear he could hear it scream. During his time he had a lot of medical and mental problem because of the way he was treated in the prison.

Jose Mujica helped in many ways like as you know he donated 90% of his salary to charity. But that was not all he did to help. He did not take advantage of his power, he would wait in line at places like supermarkets and hospitals. He didn’t see himself as superior to the rest of the citizens

Another way Mujica was a unique president is he did not live in a mansion with butlers or servants he lives in a small house with his wife. One of Mujica’s passions is farming his land on in his freetime. Unlike many other presidents he chooses not to live the luxury life. ‘’My definition of poor are those who need too much.Because those who need too much are never satisfied’’, states Mujica. He is a very simple and humble man, trying to better his country.

Another thing he did was  legalized marijuana so instead of people going to jail because of it and the government spending thousands of dollars on the people arrested for marijuana they can use the money on charity and more important things -like hospitals, ‘’It is targeting the battle against drug trafficking, every addiction is plague except for love’’ says Mujica .

Jose Mujica also legalized same sex marriage. To make equal rights and opportunities for everyone regardless of their sexual orientation Mujica says,“Its older than the world for us, not legalizing it would be torture to people needlessly.”

Jose Mujica helped in many ways financially and emotionally for many people in Uruguay. Mujica made a difference with his powerful message he spreads around the world teaching others that happiness is on the inside you just need to find it. He also believed that you don’t need money to live a good life. Even though he is not president anymore, he will always be remembered for his kind and generous heart.

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The Interesting Life of Alexander Hamilton

Do you like July 4th, also known as Independence Day? You might know that July 4th is our country’s birthday. But who discovered America? Well, the people who discovered the United States of America were called “ Founding Fathers”. One of them was Alexander Hamilton, a very important person in American history. His goal was to make a very strong, central, government. Today, I will be telling you about his life and how he was such an important person.

Childhood

Alexander Hamilton was born in Saint Nevis, a small island, on January 11, 1755. Alexander’s parents weren’t legally married and were poor. His mom’s name was Rachel Faucette, and was from France. His father, James Hamilton, was from Scotland, related to a very rich family. Alexander also had a brother named James. Since his parents weren’t married, he wasn’t allowed to go to a formal school and instead got tutored. Alexander also enjoyed reading and speaking in French and English.

In 1765, the Hamiltons moved to Saint Croix when he was 10 years old. Soon enough, Alexander and his mother got very sick. Luckily, Alexander gotten better from his cruel sickness. Sadly, Rachel Faucette died on February 19, 1768. After his mother died, his father moved to another island alone to make more money. Then, Alexander and James moved in with their adult cousin, and left after he committed suicide. Now Alexander and James were very lost in life.

Soon, Alexander got a job as a clerk while he was the only age of 13. Also, Alexander got to write for Saint Croix’s newspaper, the Danish American Gazette when he was 15. When Alexander was 17, a massive hurricane came and pounded Saint Croix and other islands. Soon, he wrote about that on the newspaper. Many rich people were impressed of Alexander and soon gave him enough money to go to New York!

College

Alexander Hamilton arrived in New York in 1773. He decided to go to King’s College in New York City. Hamilton also became a “loudspeaker” for the American Revolution. He did not like Great Britain taking over most of the states in America including New York. Later in College, Alexander started a group called the “Hearts of Oak”. It did not have to do with anything in the name. The group would do military drills in case they would have to go to war some day.

The Revolutionary War

Finally, the Hearts of Oak training paid off for Hamilton. Many general military soldiers, including General George Washington, wanted Hamilton to work for/with them.  Soon, Alexander became a military leader. A few weeks later, Washington asked Hamilton to be his assistant. Hamilton said yes. Also, Hamilton became friends with a military Frenchmen, Marquis De Lafayette. In 1780, Alexander met a woman named Elizabeth Schuyler, daughter of Philip Schuyler, a war hero. Hamilton fell in love with Eliza and married her in October of 1780.

Hamilton quit his job as being Washington’s assistant of being “ too careful and overprotective”, but Hamilton still fought along his side in the world. Finally, Washington gave him command of a group of men. Then, Hamilton was sent to Yorktown, Virginia to fight a big battle against Great Britain with Lafayette and Washington. After two weeks of battle, Hamilton and the Continental army won!!! America now had its own freedom and liberty! Now, Hamilton had to create the government.

Politics and the New Government

Eliza had a son named Philip Hamilton on January 22, 1782. Hamilton went to a law school in New York to be a lawyer. In 1784, Alexander Hamilton made the first national bank in New York for the United States of America. In 1787, the Hamilton family had grown. They now had four children. In 1788, the United States of America’s new government was official. Also, in 1789 George Washington won by a landslide for president against John Adams. Hamilton quit his job as a lawyer and became the first secretary of the United States of America. And the political parties were not the same from now. One were the Federalists, one were the Anti Federalists, also known as Democratic Republicans. Alexander Hamilton was a Federalist.

In 1790, George Washington got very sick, and Alexander took care of him. In !792, Eliza and Alexander had their fifth child, named John Hamilton. In 1789,  New York City was the new capital of the country. Then in 1790, Washington D.C. was the capital, even though it wasn’t even built until the year 1800. In 1795, Hamilton quit his political work and being secretary. Eliza now had 7 children.

A man named George Eaker made a speech and insulted Hamilton and his son Philip. Philip was mad and challenged Eaker to a duel. Philip dies the day after he got shot in the duel. Burr started to act as a very greedy man and Alexander started to dislike him, which made their friendship break in half like twigs. Then, Alexander called Burr “Untrustworthy” at a dinner. Burr became angry and challenged Hamilton to a duel. In the duel, Hamilton shot his bullet up in the air thinking Burr would also surrender, but got shot. Alexander Hamilton died on July 12, 1804.

Alexander Hamilton is one of the most important person in American history. He started out poor to a legacy. A life changer. This taught me even if you think you are unsuccessful, you can make success in pretty much anything. 

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Image

History of the Olympics

 

                                                                              

The Olympic rings.

Olympic Rings

Imagine you are in the Olympics. You can be in the Summer or Winter Olympics, you choose. You have just won a gold medal and are standing up on the podium with a heavy medal around your neck and a bouquet of flowers in your hand. You are looking around the arena at all your fans clapping and cheering. Instead of thinking about your latest victory, you are thinking about how the Olympics started and how they got to be so big, and how they have changed                   

Ancient Olympics

The first recording of the Olympic Games dates all the way back, 2,800 years ago in ancient Greece. The early Olympic Games only had one competition, a short foot race. Over the years, they started to add more sporting events. The added events included chariot racing and a run wearing a full suit of armor. Men were the only participants. The law forbid women from competing in the games or even watching the games. Winners from the games were rewarded crowns of olive leaves instead of medals. The Olympic Games began to decline after the Romans conquered Greece. In the year 394, Theodosius I (the Roman Emperor) ordered the games to be stopped.

Modern Olympics

The Olympics returned in 1896, almost 3,000 years later. The modern Olympics began and were held in Athens, Greece. In 1900 the Olympics moved to Paris, France and for the first time in history, women were allowed to compete. In 1904 the Olympics were held in America in the city of St.Louis  A few of the cities where the summer games have been held are London, Amsterdam, Los Angeles, Melbourne, Rome and Rio De Janeiro, the most recent location. The tradition of hosting the Summer Olympics in different cities every four years still continues to this day. In 1924 the Winter Olympics were held for the first time. They included cold weather sports. The winter games are also held every four years in different cities such as Chamonix, Lake Placid, Squaw Valley and Pyeongchang County, where the latest games were held.

Sports Played

Many sports are played in the Summer and Winter Olympics. There are 42 summer events and 15 winter events. Some of the cold weather sports played in the Winter Olympics now are Alpine skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, ski jumping, snowboarding and speed skating. Diving, volleyball, gymnastics, swimming, tennis and basketball are some of the many sports played in the Summer Olympics. More countries attend the Summer Olympics than the Winter Olympics. Also, worldwide, the Summer Olympic sports are more popular.

Many changes have been made to the Olympics of long ago. Women now play a major role in the Olympics. Also, the games are so big that almost every nation participates. Changes are still being made today. For example, in 2020 the Summer Olympics are expected to have bouldering and speed climbing, which are both rock climbing sports.

 

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Bum the Dog: San Diego’s Famous Town Dog

By Jake

Bum, San Diego’s Town Dog.

Did you know that one of San Diego’s MOST famous “celebrities” had four legs and a tail?! I had no idea that San Diego even had a town dog until my Grandma and my Mom told me about “Bum the Dog”!

When I heard that San Diego had a famous town dog, I wanted to find out more about “Bum” and what made this Half-St. Bernard/Half-Spaniel dog an important historical figure in San Diego’s history!

I wondered…how did Bum get to San Diego? How did he get the name “Bum” & what made him become so famous? Is there a memorial to Bum in San Diego? I had SO many questions that I decided I needed to do some investigative research to find out all the answers… and share them with… Y-o-u!

I was surprised to discover that Bum arrived in San Diego as a…stowaway! Bum was a stowaway aboard a steamship called the Santa Rosa. He traveled on this steamship all the way from San Francisco to San Diego way back in 1886! I couldn’t believe it! This was proof that Bum was a very adventurous, independent, and brave dog.

I also found out that Bum even had a couple books written about him! In the book: The Dog That Belonged to No One, the author Gerald A. Schiller wrote about how Bum got his name. I read about how Bum liked to hang out with the local “newsboys” (the town boys who sold newspapers on the streets of downtown San Diego).

In this story about Bum, the author wrote that one of these newsboys said:

“Well, I’ll be darned. You don’t seem to need my help in bummin’ some food – or maybe stealin’ it. Hey, there’s a name I can call ya. Bum. You’re just a bum, with no home or owner. But ya sure can bum food if ya need it, I guess. Then I think I’ll call you Bum!”

Also according to the journalist Richard Schulte, “His name suited him because he arrived as a town stowaway, befriended everyone and “bummed” quality food from the local eateries.” (Can you believe that some restaurants even put up signs in their windows that said: “Bum Eats Here”!?)

So, that was how Bum got his name, and it stuck with him his whole life! From that moment, he was forever “Bum”.

The townspeople of San Diego adopted Bum and he became San Diego’s first (and only!) town dog!  Bum enjoyed many adventures during his life in San Diego. Some of his adventures included racing along with the horse drawn fire engines on the way to a fire, traveling by himself to Los Angeles and back to San Diego by train, officiating at town parades, and even greeting visiting dignitaries, such as U.S. President Benjamin Harrison! Bum even survived being hit by a train while he was fighting another dog on the train tracks! (Sadly though, Bum lost his right forepaw and part of his tail in this fight.)

Bum also survived a serious injury, after he was kicked by a horse!

When I visited the Gaslamp Museum at the Davis-Horton House, I found the special memorial to Bum, and also a lot of interesting facts about Bum!

I found out that Bum was so beloved by the citizens of San Diego that the city gave him a lifetime dog tag…Bum didn’t ever have to pay a dog license tax!

Bum was also declared “San Diego’s Official Town Dog”, and they even put his picture on “Dog Tax Receipts” of 1891.

When I was reading the plaque about Bum that is located next to the statue of Bum in the pocket park next to the museum, I noticed that pennies were left on the plaque and I wondered why. The lady at the museum told me that the pennies were symbolic of when Bum died on November 10, 1898, and the children of San Diego collected pennies for a proper funeral for Bum.

(I also left my own pennies for Bum on the lower left corner of the plaque!)

She told me that although Bum’s actual grave is not really known, this memorial statue of him is the first memorial to a historic animal in the State of California!

Bum was a remarkable street dog who won the heart of San Diego. Bum’s personality, survival skills, and independence brought San Diego together.

It’s no wonder that Bum the dog became San Diego’s famous first (and only!) town dog!  Make sure to visit the memorial to “Bum the Dog” the next time you visit the Gaslamp District in downtown San Diego…and remember to leave a penny for Bum!

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Alexander Hamilton

 

Alexander Hamilton Statue in Central Park (New York City) - February 18, 2017 Corey Seeman via Compfight

by Ellie

How would you feel if feel your father ran away and your mother died? Do you think you would grow up to be a famous American founding father? Well, that is exactly what Hamilton did.

Alexander Hamilton had a very hard early life. He was born in Nevis. His father ran away because he was married to two girls. Then his mother died from an illness so he had to live with his cousin. But his cousin committed suicide. Then a hurricane destroyed his land so he had to move to New York.  

Hamilton played an important role in founding our country. For example, he was in the army and he led the soldiers to victory in Yorktown. He helped write our country’s constitution. He was also the first treasury secretary of the United States.

Alexander did not live a long life. For many years he was in a feud with Aaron Burr. They disagreed about many things. Then after a long time, Aaron Burr decided to have a duel. A duel is where two people bring guns and walk 10 paces away and fire. Alexander got hit and died the next day.

Hamilton’s life was short but very important.  He lived 49 years.  You can see his face on the ten dollar bill.  Also, there is now a very famous musical about his life.  It is called “Alexander Hamilton.”  

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All About Math!

Malaysian Chinese abacus

An abacus is an ancient counting tool.

Creative Commons License Thomas Quine via Compfight

Did you know that people have been using mathematics for over 4,500 years? Mathematics is a subject at our schools online and in the outside world. Mathematics was made from a board and a stick, because that is all they had back in 300 to 600 BC. Mathematics was made to help people with everyday things and to make us smarter. So, with that being said I am here to tell you everything you need to know about math.

Mathematics started from 600 to 300 BC (before Christ). The Ancient Greek people invented it by using a system of Mathematics that they used from their own Mathematics. This so they could grow a larger amount of people to use to do everyday things. Like counting money or whatever currency you have. Maybe to count animals, but most importantly what were we going to count the with? Roman Numerals! they were lines and letters. I=1, V=5, X=10, L=50, C=100, D=500, and finally, M=1,000.

 

From 4,500 years ago we still have a tool that Romans used. This tool is called an abacus, it was used to count everyday things. The abacus is also called a counting frame, it is a collector’s item it would be worth definitely over $1 million, obviously because it was made 4,500 years ago.

The Ancient Egyptians from about 3,000 BC used algebra, arithmetic, and geometry to find the approximate the area of a circle. There was a number system that Hindu-Arabic started developing in the 1st century and then came to be in the 9th century. A welsh mathematician named Robert Recorde invented the equal sign (=). The symbols + and – addition and subtraction have been around for thousands of years but it wasn’t until the 16th century that most mathematical symbols were invented.

I hope I have informed you all you need to know about math it really informed me. Well, that is Brandon signing off for now. Thank you for listening to my informational text on Mathematics. Here are some helpful Links:

http://www.kidsmathgamesonline.com/facts/history.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_mathematics

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The History of The Olympics

 The Olympic motto is “Citius, Altius, Fortius”—“Faster, Higher, Stronger.” The Olympics is the biggest sporting competition in the world and its history is rich with many great details.  The Olympic ‘Torch Relay’ has traveled hundreds of thousands of miles by countless people on different modes of transportation and continues to be the opening act for the Olympics.  The Olympics also has a fun side with its silly categories which most people have never heard about.

The first recorded Olympic Games was in 776 B.C. and had a great foot race of about 200 yards held on a plain by the River Alpheus (now the Ruphia) just outside the little town of Olympia in Greece. It was from that day the Greeks began to keep their calendar by “Olympiads,” four-years between the celebrations of the famous games. The modern Olympic Games, which started in Athens in 1896, are the result of a French educator, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, “Because young people and athletics have gone together through the ages, education and athletics might go hand-in-hand toward a better international understanding.”  The Olympic symbol is five interlocking circles colored blue, yellow, black, green, and red, on a white background, representing the five continents. At least one of those colors appears in the national flag of every country.  The US flag is represented by two colors on the Olympic flag, red and blue.

Olympic torch "Kiss"

Kieran Clarke via Compfight

 The Olympic flame is a symbol of the Olympic Games. The fire was introduced at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, and it has been part of the modern Olympic Games ever since.  In the ancient story, the Greek God Zeus, also known as ‘the thief of fire’, kept the fire burning throughout the celebration of the ancient Olympics.  This symbol has turned into the ‘Torch Relay’ of modern times, which transports the flame from Greece to the place of the games.  Over the last 80 years, the Olympic torch has been carried by hundreds of thousands of people and traveled on every imaginable form of transport.  Continuing the historic tradition, the flame is still lit in Olympia, Greece, in the same way as it was in ancient times – with the aid of a parabolic mirror reflecting the sun’s rays.  The flame went airborne for the first time on the Helsinki 1952 Torch Relay.  What made the Sydney 2000 Torch Relay unique was the fact that it took place mostly at sea, with the torch being transported on water from one Pacific island or nation to the next on its way to Australia.  The Olympic torch has even been underwater!

The Olympics is not always as its motto suggests of ‘Faster, Higher, Stronger’.  There are some fun, more relaxed categories of sports.  Some funny “sports ” in the Olympics are 1. Club Swinging; athlete stands holding clubs that are like bowling pins in each hand. He then twirls and whirls them around. The more complicated the routine, the more points he wins. 2. Pigeon Shooting; athletes aim to bring down as many pigeons as possible. 3. Tug Of War; teams that struggle and strain to pull a rope past a certain point. Great Britain has won the most medals in this event. 4. Roller Hockey; the game follows the rules of ice hockey, but with roller skates. 5.  La Canne; ok, think fencing. Now take away the saber and replace it with a cane. You know, the walking stick type of thing? Then it’s La Canne. 6. Rope Climbing; just like in PE, climbers are timed to see how quickly they can shimmy up a braided rope. 7. Trampolining; which seems like an activity you do in your backyard, trampoline was an Olympic sport that started in 2000. Gymnasts performed on trampolines, somersaulting and flipping as stern-faced judges keep score. 8. Race Walking; competitors try to outrace one another without actually running. Even though it seems a little goofy, race walking has actually been an Olympic sport since 1904. To ensure that athletes do not run, race walkers must have one foot on the ground at all times or could be disqualification.  Which is your favorite, funny sport?

The Olympics is a world wide tradition that has as long, rich history filled with traditions still carried on.  One of these traditions is the Torch Relay, with the torch still being lit in Greece and then carried – by whatever means necessary – to its ultimate location. Don’t be fooled by the serious motto of “Citius, Altius, Fortius”, as the Olympics also has a lighter side. The silly categories may not be as well known as some of the other categories but are just as important. Next time it’s the year of the Olympics pick a silly sport to watch, enjoy and yell a new motto “Funny, Funnier, Funniest!”

https://www.olympic.org/ancient-olympic-games/history

https://www.infoplease.com/history-olympic-torch-flame-and-relay

http://dailyhive.com/vancouver/weird-olympic-sports-rio-2016

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympic_symbols

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Supersonic Transit System

Not long ago, billionaire Elon Musk had a vision of the future. He dreamed of a supersonic transit system. Soon after, he released a 57-page document on a concept called Hyperloop. Hyperloop is a huge supersonic transit system that travels in between cities filled with traffic. The sponsor of Tesla motors and SpaceX dreamed of a friction-less, low-pressure, vacuum-sealed pod. Powered with energy from solar panels, it should be able to withstand major natural disasters. Elon believed this pod would shorten travel times drastically. For example, the distance from San Francisco to Los Angeles takes 6 hours. This pod could get there in 35 minutes.

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Trick or Treat! It’s Halloween

Halloween Vintage 05.JPG
Halloween Vintage 05“. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.

I bet when you start thinking about Halloween you think CANDY or what should I be should I be a superhero. That is all okay but what is really behind that? That is why I am here today and ready to teach you what it is really all about.

First of all Halloween is short for hallows eve so Halloween is a synonym to hallows eve.  Anoka Minnesota people were the first people to celebrate Halloween. Around 2,000 years ago the Celtics had new years on November 1. They thought that the day before Halloween (October 31 which is when Halloween always takes place) was a when the living and the dead could meet again. This was also a special holiday to honor saints and all the other people who died that are in their religion. People believed that the dead might cause problems or hurt them. That is when they decided to dress up in ghost costumes and try to scare the dead that they thought would haunt them. They thought that if they thought they were dead they would not harm them. This was all in Europe. Wait how did Halloween get to America then? Halloween got to America because of migrating Europeans. Halloween changed a little. Since pumpkins are common at this time of year they carved them and used them as lanterns which people call jack-o-lanterns. Now children dress up and instead of scaring spirits they go door to door and ask for a yummy treat if they have no treats they might be in for a little trick. Now it is a saying.(trick-or-treat) So now you know what Halloween is really about. Next time in class on a Halloween party or if you are with friends tell them about Halloween. There is a lot of cool facts about Halloween. This is just something to think about when you say, “Trick or Treat”.

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