December 18

How Rubber Is Made And Its Uses?

Rubber has many uses, like floss, tires, balloons, and much more. But how is it made? It has to do with trees. Its called a rubber tree. When you get a tool and scratch it along it, a sap comes and drizzles down. When it dries…..TADA rubber! Then it can be made into things like floss, tires, and more.

Rubber comes from the sap of the rubber tree.

Rubber uses

Rubber has lots of uses.Here’s an example–floss. You floss your teeth with it. Let me explain other uses too. It is used for balloon coloring and balloon making! It is used for masks for Halloween! Rubber is used for lots of things, and it’s just from a tree! There’s lots of uses for this stuff than these ones, so just look around to see with you can find it!

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December 18

Stonehenge and Other Mysterious Places

Stonehenge in England.

What is Stonehenge 

Stonehenge is an unusual place that looks like a circle of rocks. Stonehenge is in Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge is a monument for the dead. No one knows who put the stones there. One Theory is that Merlin, the god of Arthurian magically put the stones there. Some think it is the ruins of a temple.

When Stonehenge Began

Stonehenge began 5,000 years ago. The first circle was built in 3,000 B.C,  made of timber. That is 3,000 years before Christ was born.

Why Stonehenge is so special 

Stonehenge is so special because it is a monument for the dead and it is so unusual because there are massive stones about 30 feet tall. Stonehenge is a prehistoric circle of rocks. Some people might think, “its just a circle of rocks how can it be so special”, well there’s a lot of reasons why it is so special. It has even been given the nickname “slaughter stone”. I think it is named slaughter stone because there has been many sacrifices.

Other Mysterious Places 

Now that i have told you a little about Stonehenge. I’m gonna tell you about some other mysterious places. First, the Bermuda Triangle is a deep triangle in the water, many ships have disappeared there. It covers all of the Caribbean islands. Its mysterious because many ships have disappeared without a trace.

Nazca lines was carved about 2,000 years ago, the lines form huge pictures, its located in Peru. The lines are about 1,200 feet long. They are lines that make animals and plants. They are carved on a a desert floor.

Yonaguni Monument are odd step stones that were discovered in 1986 in an ocean near Japan. It is underwater.

Last but not least, Chichen Itza, deep within the Mexican jungles is a mysterious temple or pyramid. it was built in 600 B.C.


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December 18

Dodo Birds An Extinct Animal

The Dodo bird has been extinct for hundreds of years.

Do you want to know an extinct called “dodo”?  Today I will tell you why they extinct.

Dodo birds once lived on the Island of Mauritius.  Dodo bird was a type of flightless bird. They had tiny wings with their fat body.They were usually three feet tall, and weighed about 29 to 51 Ibs. They were full of downy gray feather and a white plume foratail.

In1630s Dutch sailor colonized Mauritius.They found the Dodo bird was to easy to hunt. So they caught more and more dodo birds, and the dodo birds became less and less. The last Dodo bird died in 1681.

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December 18

Why do cats purr?

Why do cats purr? That’s a really good question. You probably think cats purr when they are happy but cats don’t always purr when they are happy but why? Let me tell a one reason why well the first reason is when a cat is sick or scared they will purr to calm themselves down. 

Gato busca hogarCreative Commons License Jose Antonio Moreno Cabezudo via Compfight

Why do kittens purr?

A kitten will purr when they are nursing to tell there mom that they are oak also when a kitten is nursing they will paw on their mother’s stomach to produce more milk. When a kitten is scared or stressed they will purr to calm themselves down or tell them that they are safe and they will purr to bond with their moms.

Why do adult cats purr?

In the wild a mother cat will purr but without  alerting any predators and when their cubs are messing around or play fitting they will purr to tell them to calm down. When a cat is sick, hurt dying will purr when they come back from a hunt but the will purr to comfort itself and tell itself that everything is going to be oak.                          

Did you like all of those facts about why cats purr? Well if you did let me tell you a theory of how cats purr. Some scientists think that purring comes from neural oscillator sells sells comes from the brain and the brain sends the sells to the voice box and the voice box shakes to make that purring sound.

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December 18

What is Rubber?

raw natural latex

 When you think about rubber do you think, “Where does rubber come from?” or “What uses does rubber have?” or even “Who first used rubber?” All that will be answered and more in this blog post.

What is Rubber?

Rubber is sap from the rubber tree.The rubber tree was originally from the amazon rainforest but thailand and indonesia are the main makers of rubber today.With natural rubber you can make gloves, balloons, realistic masks, and bed mattresses. Natural rubber has a few nicknames like Latex, Amazonian Rubber, and India Rubber.

The first uses of Rubber

ball player

Mesoamerican ball player

The first uses of rubber were in South America and was used a long time ago by the South American natives called Olmecs for a few games. Rubber was later used by the Aztecs and the Mayas.

How Is Natural Rubber Made?

raw natural latex

latex from rubber tree

There are four steps to the process of getting rubber. Step 1: Start tapping, usually once every 2 days with a knife. Step 2: Collect the liquid rubber with small bowls. Step 3: Mix the liquid rubber with formic acid so it becomes solid rubber. Step 4: Press the solid rubber into sheets. Step 5: Ship the rubber to get sold.

Vulcanization of Rubber

rubber tires

vulcanized rubber tires

Vulcanization is something that you can do to rubber to make it harder but still a little bit flexible. Charles Goodyear discovered Vulcanization in 1839. With Vulcanized rubber, you can make car tires, clarinet bells, and shoe soles. Vulcanization is done by “cross linking”. Cross linking is done by mixing the rubber with sulfur at a high temperature.

cross-linked molecules

cross linked rubber molecules

So next time you see a piece of rubber you’ll know a little more about where it came from.

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December 17

Coldest Place on Earth


Do you know what the coldest place on Earth is? Well, since you can’t imagine what it feels like I’m going to tell you what I found. Scientists found out where by using a thermometer because you can’t just decide how cold it is somewhere without one. The coldest temperature ever recorded was -128.6 degree Fahreneit! I can’t even imagine how it felt!

Did you know the South Pole is colder than the North Pole. Plus the South pole is located in Antarctica. But now to answer you’ve been waiting for… the coldest place on Earth is Antartica!

Some fun facts about the cold is that dry ice can give you frostbite immediately if you’re not that careful. And did you know that Antarctica is Greek for opposite of North? And believe it or not Antarctica is actually a desert because it doesn’t get that much rain.

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December 17

The World’s Largest Bird

A picture of a Elephant Bird.

Model of a Elephant Bird.

Elephant Birds are an extinct species that lived on the island of Madagascar. They were HUGE so big that your about 60% the size of this bird. They were 10 feet tall and weighed 1,000 pounds. This makes it the biggest bird to ever live and this odd and huge bird doesn’t stop being huge in other ways.

Elephant Bird Eggs

The Elephant Birds eggs were 150 times the size of a chicken egg. They were 12 inches tall and 8 inches wide these eggs are huge. Even though the eggs are huge they lay almost 150 eggs in there lifetime. If added up correctly that’s 150 feet tall if there all on top of each other and 120 feet wide if there all on a flat surface. These eggs also weighed a lot 22 pounds or 10 kilograms.

Elephant Bird Speed      

Not much is known about Elephant Birds speed but we know its about 20 mph or 35 kmph. That’s about the speed of a grown elephant.

These birds died off in the 17th century b.c from humans killing this HUGE bird.

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December 12

Stop Animal Extinction!

Did you know the number of animals that go extinct each year is almost fifty thousand? That is extremely high. The Iberian lynx is one of the animals that went extinct recently. It is a nocturnal cat that could run as fast as 50 miles an hour. The Sabertooth cat is another extinct animal. It has been extinct for millions of years. It had a powerful jaw and could bite through bones. All these animals and more would have been good to have in the world today.

Humans are the main reason animals are going extinct. Climate change makes about 15 thousand species go extinct per year. Habitat loss is also a problem for animals. When people cut down trees animals lose their homes and have no place to hide.  Poaching is another reason animals are going extinct. People hunt animals illegally for money. The animals get hunted so much they go extinct. People try to catch poachers to protect animals.

Humans are concerned about animals going extinct. They have looked for ways to bring back extinct animals. Some scientists found a way. They have tried to clone animals. To clone an animal you need to have a DNA sample of its blood. It needs to have been collected recently. You put the DNA into another animal’s developing baby. The baby would then be whichever animal’s DNA was in it. The pyrenean ibex is a type of Spanish ibex that went extinct in 19 years ago. Scientists have tried to bring them back. They cloned a pyrenean ibex and they succeeded. A pyrenean ibex was born again, although it died minutes after birth.

I think we should try to bring animals back into existence permanently. I also think we should stop making animals go extinct. What do you think?

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December 12

How Was the Asteroid Belt Formed

The asteroid belt is in the middle of our solar system. Did you ever wonder how it got there? Well imagine this, large amounts of gravity, asteroids trying to fuse together but blasting apart into pieces. Or another theory is that a planet blasting into many pieces to form the asteroid belt. Here is the last theory, imagine Jupiter drifting toward Mars, then coming back out scattering asteroids in every direction. Now let’s look at the facts!

Asteroids and the Asteroid Belt

Now, you’re probably thinking, “What is an asteroid?” Well an asteroid is a small rocky object orbiting a star. Most asteroids in the asteroid belt are left over from the solar nebula. The asteroid belt is made of a lot of asteroids orbiting our Sun. The asteroid belt is located between Mars and Jupiter. One last fact is that the mass of the asteroid belt is 4% of the moon. Now you know all this, let us move on.


The stuff that is grey is where the asterod belt is located.

Why is the Asteroid Belt Not a Planet?

As you probably know, gravity is used to make moons, planets, galaxies, stars and so on.   Too little or too much gravity doesn’t allow these things to form. Now let’s talk about Jupiter and two ways it affects, or affected the asteroid belt. Jupiter’s mass is the greatest of any planet in our solar system. Jupiter’s pull is so strong, most scientists believe it is one of the main reason the asteroid belt is not a planet. Especially in the asteroid belts early stages, when it tried to form a planet but even if they got close to each other and hit they would be blown into even smaller pieces.

Another theory is that Jupiter, in it’s early stages, drifted towards Mars, but when it came back to where it is currently it left the debris in the middle, now the asteroid belt, making the debris in the middle fling around. Also it left the debris with so much energy, everything was crashing into each other. Gravity affects a lot of things but does it have to have affected the asteroid belt? Well some scientists think not. Read on to find out about another theory.

 Could the Asteroid Belt Have Been a Planet?

Do you know about the hypothetical planet Phaeton? Well let me tell you about it. Some scientists argue that the asteroid belt is left over from a planet that was destroyed, and somehow made a bunch of asteroids, well it’s something along those lines. Others say that Phaeton would have been formed. Those scientists say that the turnings from protoplanets into planets was disturbed by Jupiter’s gravitational pull. That is one of the last MAIN theories about how the asteroid belt was formed. Naturally there are many more theories I could not include in this article. That is because nobody knows the exact way the asteroid belt was formed. All we have are theories.

What Do You Think?

Now that you have some of the main theories what do you think? Which theory do you believe in? Do you belive the theory that it is all up to Jupiter’s gravitational pull? Do you think Jupiter came in toward Mars then moved out and made too much energy? Or do you think the asteroid belt is left over from an exploded planet? Remember nobody knows exactly how the asteroid belt was formed. Maybe you will be the one to find the exact theory!

The asteroid belt now

Just for fun, this is a type of video. This is what it means : This video shows the progression of NASA’s Near-Earth Object Wide-field Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) investigation for the mission’s first four years following its restart in December 2013. Green dots represent near-Earth objects. Gray dots represent all other asteroids which are mainly in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Yellow squares represent comets.

Photo credits:

By Mdf at English Wikipedia – Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons., Public Domain, Link

By NASA/JPL-Caltech/PSI – Catalog page · Full-res (GIF), Public Domain, Link





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August 10

Should Exotic Animals Be Kept as Pets?

green anole lizard (12)Do you have a snake or a type of lizard? Well, those are exotic animals. Animals that should live in the wild. About 18,000,000 Americans have exotic animals and I think that should stop. Many animals should be in their own habitat. Today, I will tell you 3 reasons why exotic animals should not be pets.

To begin with, wild animals can die if they escape. Snakes and small exotic animals are mostly likely to escape. For instant, most animals need to be guided from their mothers. For example, baby birds need to learn how to fly from their mothers.

Second, wild animals can be very aggressive to humans and that can involve injuries to deaths. In 2005, a woman named Paris Hilton got a pet kinkajou, native from Central and South America, named Baby Luv. Soon, Baby Luv bit Hilton deeply enough for her to go to the hospital. Luckily, Hilton got better from her severe injury. Most wild animals are not used to be being next to humans.

Lastly, it is cruel to keep them as pets. First of all, they are not used to our climate conditions. Imagine being in a desert 130 degrees, or a very chilly place about 10 degrees! That’s what it kind of feels like for them. Also, most owners do not know how to train how their pets. Finally, pets end up suffering.

To restate my opinion, exotic animals should not be pets. It can be dangerous to us but more importantly, dangerous to them. Also, there are many other animals to adopt/own. Again, 18,000,000 Americans own exotic animals. That should stop. So if you are thinking to get some sort of lizard, make the right choice.

Creative Commons License patricia pierce via Compfight

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August 9

Kangaroos and their Joeys     

ItchesInstead of walking, you are hopping. Instead of hands, you have paws. Instead of smaller ears, you have big, furry ears. What kind of animal could this be? You guessed it, it’s a kangaroo!

Kangaroos are famous for their large, powerful hind legs that they use for hopping. They are the only large mammal that uses hopping for locomotion. Besides that, kangaroos have another fun fact. They are marsupials. Marsupials are a group of mammals that carry their young in their pouch. Kangaroos are very different from other animals.

The Dangerous Journey

The newborn called a joey looks totally helpless. Yet, it manages to make its way to the pouch without any help from its mother. What an amazing feat a tiny creature can do. Clinging to its mother’s fur Joey climbs slowly to its mother’s belly to reach the warmth and safety of the pouch. The  journey only takes a few minutes.

Life in the Pouch

Whenever a kangaroo is born, they go to their mother’s pouch. Safe in the pouch the joey clamps onto one of four teats that give life-giving milk. The teat swells to fill the mouth and works like an anchor, holding the baby firm so that the baby does not fall out as it’s mother hops around. Fed by the mother’s milk, the joey grows quickly. It’s eyes and ears open, it’s fur starts to grow, and it’s strong back legs develop. It starts to look more like a young kangaroo.  After a few months, the joey takes it’s first peep out of the pouch. Soon it will be able to venture into the outside world the second time.

Leaving the Pouch

 At the age of six months old, the red and gray kangaroos leave the pouch for the for the first time, as their mother’s tip them to the ground gently. Some kangaroos leave the pouch when they are eight months old and still suck milk for three to four months old. Others leave at eleven months and still suck the milk until they are eighteen months old. At first, the joey spends only a short amount of time on the ground before getting back into the pouch. The young animal moves awkwardly at first, but soon it learns how to hop on its hind legs like its mother. Their mother teaches them how to feed and take care of themselves.  

Kangaroos are very interesting and unique animals, not only because of their hopping, but also because of the way they reproduce. Besides carrying their babies in the pouch female kangaroos are considered to always be pregnant. When one baby is ready to leave the pouch a new one is ready to climb back in it. Isn’t it amazing!

Creative Commons License Soren Wolf via Compfight

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August 3

Wonderful Cockatiels

Are you looking for the perfect pet? I have one for you. It’s soft, it has a yellowish color and has bright orange cheeks. It’s not Pikachu, it’s a cockatiel! Cockatiels are the second most popular pet bird in the United States (after parrots). It’s not just because they are cute but because of the three C’s and those are easy to care for, cheap, and compatible for all ages.

It’s very easy to take care of cockatiels. Cockatiels can be left alone for a long time. This means if you are out of town for the weekend then you won’t have to get a pet sitter. They take care of themselves. They only need to get fed once every 2 to 3 days and their cage only needs to be cleaned once every 2 weeks. Another reason they are good pets is you won’t have to spend extra time walking them. They are happy exercising by themselves inside or out of their cage. Cockatiels like walking around inside the house, out of their cage while you pursue a quiet activity like studying or reading.

Another reason cockatiels are the perfect pet is because they are cheap. Of course buying one is about $100-$300 but after that, you will have nothing to worry about. The first reason is cockatiels get sick very rarely so you won’t have to pay for the vet often. Also, cockatiels don’t need check-ups or shots whin big bags last for a long time. Also, you won’t have to buy toys for them because they keep ich can be very expensive. Cockatiels do not eat much so the food which are cheap and come themselves entertained with anything around them. They don’t need toys to gnaw on to help their teeth (or beak) or climbing structures to be up high.

Whether you are 5 or 105, you will always love these nice animals called cockatiels. Cockatiels are smart so they are very easy to train. Kids will have fun teaching them do tricks. Kids would be amused seeing cockatiels learn simple tricks like stepping up and down and bow their head and some complicated tricks like somersaulting and saying their name. Also, cockatiels are quiet so if some families have babies who are afraid of loud noises then these birds are perfect for them. Cockatiels are also good for seniors especially if they live alone. They are good companions for them because they don’t need much attention but they can be there to keep them company.  Seniors will also like the cockatiel’s quiet qualities.

Still not convinced that cockatiels are the perfect pet? Well just ask the millions of people who own them today and they will change your mind. They will tell you about the three Cs and other reasons that make cockatiels the perfect pet.   

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June 7


Edinburgh Zoo Do you want to learn facts about Pandas and maybe even how to save them from extinction? If you read my article, I will tell you all about what they eat, where they live and even tell you the reasons why they are going extinct! This is all in my article so go ahead and read it I would love it if you did.

Pandas live in high in dense bamboo forests in the misty rainy mountains in Southwestern China.  Pandas also sometimes live in the Chinese Zoos with a big area to roam around in and with people that adore Pandas so much.  Pandas are originally from China. Pandas like to live in cool weather not hot or dry weather just cool climates.

Pandas eat bamboo as you all know, but they also enjoy honey, eggs, fish, fruit, and veggies like oranges, yams, and bananas.  They also eat leaves, stems, and shoots. The Giant Pandas eat up to 20-40 pounds of food a day then they poo 50 times a day because they eat so much food.

When baby Pandas are born they weigh three to five ounces like a stick of butter. They are pink in color, blind, hairless, cute, and harmless. Pandas are the smallest newborn mammals relative to their mother’s size. They stay with their mother until they are 2 years old then they can fend for themselves out in the forest.  

The reason Pandas are going extinct is that people are destroying the Panda’s habitat for development in China. There are only about 20 patches of forest in China left where the pandas can live. Pandas don’t have enough food to live in the forests. There are now only 1,114 Giant Pandas left alive in the world! Isn’t that horrible.

Pandas are going extinct.  Isn’t that sad? So many people adore pandas.  The world would be sad without pandas so we should come up with more ideas to help save the panda population.Like, give your loose change to Panda zoos because they also want to help save pandas.

Tuomo Lindfors via Compfight

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June 7

Panda Extinction

Thailand 2007 You are the panda bear munching on delicious bamboo straws. WOW! Look out your little baby panda bear almost got tackled by a snow leopard! This article is about panda extinction and a few other facts, do you think pandas are going to go extinct? You should definitely read this article because if you love pandas and just want to know every single bit about them then, read this article!

Giant pandas are becoming extinct because of extensive habitat loss and destruction by hunters. Habitat loss destroys bamboo, which is the giant panda’s natural food source.

Pandas have to eat a lot of bamboo. This is because they do not digest bamboo very well. Pandas can digest only about 17 percent of what they consume. Pandas have to eat a lot of it so they can get nutrients from it. The study notes that the bears evolved from omnivorous ancestors but likely began to specialize in bamboo-chomping 7 million years ago. But in that time, they haven’t evolved to become efficient at breaking down cellulose. As a result, the panda’s stomach and intestinal system are more similar to a carnivore than a vegetarian.       

Pandas became endangered on January 23 1984. Throughout many years, the lives of these Giant Pandas have been severely impacted by mainly habitat loss.

A pretty long time ago pandas lived in a large portion of China. Now they only live in a very tiny fraction of what used to be a big area. They live very close to Chang River and Huang River.

Usually, the characteristics of a panda are:

  • They Have “Cat-Like” Pupils For Seeing Well at Night.
  • Distinctively Black and White. Giant pandas have a distinctive appearance.
  • Their Paws Have Six “Fingers”!

To prevent pandas from going extinct people are donating money to panda societies. There are also panda clubs, and the new San Diego zoo is raising some pandas too! If you kill a panda you will be fined. New reproductive technologies that will help preserve sperm and egg DNA for future breeding.

The giant panda is a conservation reliant vulnerable species. A 2007 report showed 239 pandas living in captivity inside China and another 27 outside the country. In December 2014, 49 giant pandas lived in captivity outside China, living in 18 zoos in 13 different countries.

Some of the famous pandas that everyone knows about are:

  • Chi Chi                 
  • Tai Shan
  • Gao Gao
  • Hua Mei
  • Gu Gu
  • Tuan Tuan and Yuan Yuan
  • And a very special brown panda named Su Lin

Su Lin is a one of a kind brown panda, brown pandas are actually very rare like Su Lin. Here I’ll show you a picture

This is Su Lin



You know what a lot of pandas are born in the world i think it’s time to see how many pandas are born each year.

In 2017 a record 42 giant pandas were born at to breeding stations of the China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda On September 6, 2006, 9-year-old giant panda Lun Lun gave birth to a cub. According to Zoo Atlanta, which hosts Lun Lun and her mate Yang Yang, this was only the fifth cub born in the United States since 1990. Since four United States zoos host breeding pairs of pandas, this number might seem a little low.

If you want to help take care of pandas then you should tell people to start to care for pandas. You can tell the government to stop cutting down bamboo because that’s where pandas live and eat.

Patrik M. Loeff via Compfight

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May 21

History of Computers!

Could you imagine life without cell phones, tablets, or calculators? These are all computers. They are important part of our daily lives. Here is some information about computer history.

What computers are

So what are computers? They are defined as devices for saving and processing data. They were created initially to calculate math problems.  Charles Babbage was the first one to invent the computer. It was a mechanical computer but he never managed to completely build it. The first digital, electromechanical programmable computer called Z3 was built by Konrad Zuse in Germany in 1941.  Another fact is that the first computer mouse was made out of wood

First Modern computer

First modern, electronic computer was called  ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) and was built in 1946-1947. It took as much as 1800 square feet of space. Early computers often stopped working. Sometimes it was caused by bugs. Not the software errors but actual insects that got trapped in these machines.

Computers now

Nowadays, people have much smaller and faster computers  And now they are not just used for calculating math problems  They are to look things up, to upload pictures, to print and to help us in our daily lives.They are also getting more powerful. But about 6,000 computer  viruses are released each month. That is one of the down sides of computers. But according to Moore’s law, computers get twice as fast every 18 months.

One thing is sure, it looks we will always use computers in our daily lives. I typed this homework on a computer, but who knows, maybe in few years, a computer would be able to write it all by itself.


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May 21

Our National Parks


Image result for national parks

Have you ever wondered about National Parks? How many are there? What are they called? Where are they? Why do we have them? Why should we care about them? Why should we protect them? Well now I’ll tell you just read on and this article will answer those questions.

Did you know that since we are in the 4th grade we get to go to each National Park, with our family, for free? So why don’t you take a trip some time? A national park is scenic or historically important area of countryside protected by the federal government for the enjoyment of the general public or the preservation of wildlife. Commercial exploitation of natural resources in a national park is illegal.

There are 61 national parks in the United States.  California has the most (nine), followed by Alaska (eight), Utah (five), and Colorado (four). Some popular national parks include Yellowstone National Park, Yosemite National Park, Grand Canyon National Park, Acadia National Park, Everglades National Park, Grand Teton National Park, Glacier National Park, Zion National Park, Denali National, and Mesa Verde National Park.

The largest national park is Wrangell–St. Elias in Alaska: at over 8 million acres (32,375 km2), it is larger than each of the nine smallest states. The next three largest parks are also in Alaska.

In 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt signed the Antiquities Act, which gave presidents the authority to create national monuments to preserve areas of natural or historic interest on public lands. The purpose of the Act was largely to protect prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts.

All of these parks are holding onto something special. For example, places in California like Joshua Tree and Red Wood National Park are home to trees that grow nowhere else on the planet we know as Earth. Joshua Trees can only be found in Joshua Tree National Park. Same with the Redwoods. You can only see them in Redwood National Park.Image result for national parks

We can help to preserve our national parks by purchasing a reusable water bottle or replacing our incandescent lights with CFLs or LEDs. These are some other rules you can follow to help and protect and preserve our national parks so our great great great great great great grandchildren can visit these amazing places:

  • Try To Put Fewer Greenhouse Gasses In The Air.
  • Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.
  • Walk, Bike, Carpool, or use Public Transportation.
  • Eat Locally.
  • Shorten Your Shower.
  • Use Less Electricity.
  • Replace Your Incandescent.

I hope you enjoyed this article and I hope you decide to visit a National park. I personally suggest Joshua Tree National Park. It is my favorite one because of the cool animals such as the chuckwalla. Also, the bouldering opportunities are endless. So if you like bouldering and wildlife go visit Joshua Tree National Park.

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May 21

Amazing Seahorses


Imagine yourself as a copepod floating in the ocean seagrass among clown fish, puffers, and dozens of other sea creatures, when you realize you’re being hunted by a delicate slow poke seahorse who only swims five feet per hour. Copepods can escape from their prey very fast, so fast that the reach speeds that are the same as a human jumping 3000 miles per hour. Do you think that would be fast enough to escape a hungry seahorse? Not quite!

Image result for seahorses


Best Ocean Predator

A seahorse’s favorite food to munch on is a copepod. Copepods are part of an animal group called crustaceans. Copepods are not only fast but they can sense vibrations from an oncoming predator and when they do sense those vibrations they get out of there speedy quick but seahorses can still catch those speedy copepods. Here’s why. Seahorses have a very unique shaped head with a feature above their nose that helps them make no waves and vibrations in the water when striking and then they suck up the copepod. This happens so fast that you cannot even see it without a very slowed down camera. If the copepods do sense the seahorse and try to bolt, the seahorse starts pivot feeding. Pivot feeding is where seahorse rotates their snout at high speed and then sucks in the copepod. This makes the seahorse one of the most successful predators in the ocean. I bet you thought it was sharks? Sharks are only successful at catching their prey fifty-five percent of the time. Seahorses are successful in catching their prey ninety percent of the time. Seahorses have to constantly eat to stay alive because food quickly passes through their simple digestive system. They have no teeth and no stomach. Since seahorses do not have teeth they have to suck in their prey and swallow it whole. 

CourtshipImage result for seahorses

We talked about seahorses unique ability to catch their prey very fast and how successful they are. Another unique thing about the seahorse is that the male gets pregnant, carries the eggs and gives birth instead of the female. Seahorse males and females have a courtship. This is like dating. Before

they breed they court for several days by dancing in sync for eight hours and swimming side by side while holding the same strip of seagrass with their tales. During this time they sometimes change color.

Seahorse HabitatsImage result for estuaries

Seahorses are usually found in shallow, tropical, and mild saltwater. They live in secure areas such as estuaries, coral reefs, and seagrass beds. Seahorse species are found in the Pacific and the Atlantic waters all the way from North America to South America. Species are also found in the European and Mediterranean waters.


If you like seahorses as much as I do, go down to the Batiquitos or San Elijo Lagoon and you might see them. Seahorses, as slow and delicate as they are, are quite unique and skilled at catching prey. Some seahorse species are endangered because in some countries they are hunted by humans to eat and they are also hunted for aquariums. Seahorse does not do well or live very long in an aquarium. I saw one in a tank when I recently went to a seafood restaurant for dinner. I thought it was very neat to see them but now after reading more about them, I feel sorry for the ones in the fish tank. Pollution is another reason for the threat to seahorses. We should all be doing our part to keep nature clean. I am going to the beach clean-up soon. Ask me how you can join in on it! I guarantee that you learned something about seahorses that you never knew before. Seahorses are not only cute but very interesting and I hope my article was too.

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May 20

Heart Attacks!

You’ve probably heard of a heart attack, Yes a heart attack but have you ever wondered how a heart attack happens or what happens in the process of a heart attack? Well, today I’m here to tell you how a heart attack works.

A heart attack occurs when one or more of your coronary arteries become blocked. Over time, a coronary artery can narrow from the buildup of various substances, including cholesterol. This condition, known as coronary artery disease, causes most heart attacks

A heart attack happens when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked and the heart can’t get oxygen. If blood flow isn’t restored quickly, the section of heart muscle begins to die.

I really hope you enjoyed my text on heart attacks and I also hope you treat your body right by giving it fluids and lots of healthy veggies. Know you know how a heart attack happens and what happens in the process.

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May 9

The History Of Basketball

This is an official basketball.

Close your eyes and imagine leading your team to the NBA finals. Your team is tied 62-62 in the 4th quarter of the last game. There are 5 seconds on the clock. You dribble it fast down to the other side of court to not waste time. You make a few bounces and then shoot it from the 3 point line over the point guards head. You shoot and then…YOU SCORE!

Basketball has been popular for a long time and it is the 3rd most popular sport in the United States. Basketball was created in 1891 in the YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) in Springfield, Massachusetts by James Naismith.

There are 5 positions in basketball. The positions are: the point guard, shooting guard, small forward, power forward, and the center.

There are types of actions that the players cannot do. They are called fouls. These are different types of fouls: hanging on people, punching and slapping, shoving and knocking them over. Specifically, if you touch them, the ref will call it a foul. The travel is another one. It is when you hug the ball and running with it without dribbling it. A double dribble is when a player catches the ball then dribbles it again.

Here are the two most popular leagues of basketball: NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) and NBA (National Basketball Association).

There are 30 teams in the NBA. They are divided in to the Western and Eastern conference. Each conference has 15 teams. Each team plays 82 games in the regular season. The court is divided in 2 halves.

There are awards in basketball. This year all star Kevin Durant won the 2018 NBA finals MVP (Most Valuable Player) award. James Harden won 2018 all around MVP award.

There are championships in the NBA and NCAA. In 2019, it was Virginia vs Texas Tech in the NCAA finals. Virginia won. Meanwhile in the NBA, the playoffs are going on right now. This past year Golden State Warriors won the NBA finals against the Houston Rockets. In the playoffs, there are series. Each series is 7 games long. The first team winning 4 games is the winner.

Many people argue who is the GOAT (Greatest Of All Time). Most people say Michael Jordan and I agree with that. Michael jordan has led his fearsome Chicago Bulls along with his sidekick, Scottie Pippen to six NBA finals. Clearly, they have won all six. The Chicago Bulls dominated the 1990’s.

If you read this, this will help you get to learn more about basketball, how you play it and its rules. If you get the chance, play basketball.

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May 9

The Lego Book


Image result for Lego brickIt’s a Saturday morning and you race downstairs to see the box of Legos you’ve wanted to start on for days and you finally get to build it! You rip open the box, take out the instructions, pour the Legos out of the bag and onto the floor and you start building a big Lego spaceship! As you build, you stop to wonder: What is a Lego? Who came up with the idea of making Legos? How are Legos made?

Ole Kirk was the person who came up with the idea. In 1957, his idea became real. The reason why Ole Kirk came up with the idea was because in 1932 his wife died and he was left to raise his four children alone. He started to think about making toys that his four sons would love. First, he started making wooden toys like ducks, vehicles, and cats. Then, he started making plastic toys like cars, trucks, and binding bricks. Binding bricks are an early design of what we know are Legos today. Binding blocks have slits on each of the shorter sides and Legos don’t.

If you were wondering what is a Lego, it’s a building block that has studs on the top and tubes on the bottom and can be built and arranged into anything imaginable. You can use two eight-studed bricks in twenty four ways, three eight-studed bricks 1,060 different ways, six eight-studed bricks 915,103,765 ways, and with eight eight-studed bricks there are endless combinations. There ten Lego features that define a Lego but 3 of them I think are the most important. The first, is unlimited play potential. I think this feature is important because you couldn’t play soccer all day long, but you can with Legos. The second, is year round play. I think this is an important feature because you couldn’t play soccer all year round but you can with Legos. The last feature is development, imagination, and creativity. I think the final feature is important because you’re learning how to follow instructions and when you build things on your own your using your imagination.

Did you know that today, the Lego factory makes about 4 million bricks an hour? There are 16 steps in making Legos. Legos start their life as little plastic granulates or plastic rice grains. They are melted between 446 degrees F and 590 degrees F. Then, they pour the melted plastic into molds. The bricks travel on a conveyor belt into a crate and to a truck that ships the crates to the packing, assembling, and decorating department. The assembly machines attach the arms to hands and tires to wheels and so on. Printing machines add faces to heads. The packing department send bags of elements or Legos and books into boxes. Finally the boxes get packed and are shipped to stores.


I hope you learned some interesting facts about Legos. I even have experience with Legos. I have a whole tub of Legos. I think Legos are fun to play with, are for girls and boys, and fun for every age. I think Ole Kirk wants you to get a tub of Legos so you can have some fun and build huge creations like big spaceships, cars, trucks, other vehicles, and lots more.


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